The importance of covariate selection in controlling for selection bias in observational studies. Future studies are needed to better understand this natural variation as well as ways to improve parent implementation of toy talk instruction in order to promote child outcomes. More recently, Thompson and Newport revisited the question of what cues were available to help children learn phrase structure. We expected the input modification to have these effects for several reasons. Parents practiced categorizing child utterances as word combinations, verb combinations, I -sentences, and other-sentences Hadley, X are not food.
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Richards and Robinson correlated 15 parent input measures and two child outcome variables at three different time points for a total of 90 correlations. Treatment Fidelity All sessions were video-and audio-recorded to monitor treatment fidelity and timing information was used to determine the amount of time dedicated to instructional content.
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All sessions were video-and audio-recorded to monitor treatment fidelity and timing information hadey used to determine the amount of time dedicated to instructional content. Effects of treatment on linguistic and social skills in toddlers with delayed language development. Contributions of parent input and child sex. The Hanen Centre; Toy talk instruction was predicted to increase declarative sentences with lexical NP subjects in parent input.
Consequently, the estimated growth trajectory for the full group of 38 participants was determined, as well as the individual differences from the overall growth trajectory. The average parent in our high talkativity group produced Our first question focused on changes in parent language input following brief hadleg in responsive interaction strategies, in general, and use of toy talk strategies, in particular. Conversatiohal, the increase in declaratives with lexical NPs subjects was accompanied by a comparable reduction in the frequency of questions.
How children use input to acquire a lexicon.
Toy talk is intended to be used in responsive conversational interactions. McCauley R, Fey M, editors. To achieve lexically flexible clause structure, children must recognize that any noun phrase can be the subject of a sentence. All three growth components displayed significant variation among gren Of course, it is possible that parents who spent more time talking about third person subjects simply provided their children with more opportunities use these sentence types.
We also told parents not to worry when they used pronominal subjects naturally, and then encouraged them to name the object in the next opportunity as illustrated in the discourse below.
Finally, most input studies are correlational, and therefore, causal interpretations of findings are tenuous. NP] is on top. Support Center Support Center. Building a language-focused curriculum for the preschool classroom, Volume II: Oxford University Press; This corresponded to expressive abilities at approximately the 10 th percentile on the CDI for total words i.
Modeling growth using multilevel and alternative approaches.
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NP] is in the cup. Given the substantial variability in toy talk with lexical NP subject types for parents in the treatment group following instruction, follow-up analyses were conducted at the level of individual parent-toddler dyads. Although parents in the treatment group learned the strategies with brief instruction, all had at least some college education and the majority had advanced degrees. Parents described their use of the two types of strategies in the home.
Table 1 reports descriptive statistics for the parent language input measures by group prior to and following instruction. Explaining quantitative variation in the rate of Optional Infinitive errors across languages: Parents were also asked whether their children produced at least 25 different words. Your tower is tall. Results Treatment Effects on Parent Language Input Our first question focused on changes in parent language input following brief instruction in responsive interaction strategies, in general, and use of toy talk strategies, in particular.
There was also significant variability in this growth pattern. Group differences in growth trajectories for sentence diversity from 21 to 30 months.